South Asian Networking Groups, Face to Face and Online

In connection with research for The Virtual Handshake: Opening Doors and Closing Deals Online (http://thevirtualhandshake.com/order-amazon.htm), below is the next in a series of articles on networks in different special-interest communities.

South Asian Diaspora

Networking Groups and Resources

by Neha Shanbhag and David Teten

South Asian-Americans, which include people of Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan, and Nepali heritages, have rapidly begun to influence and excel in the business world, politics, and the arts.

South Asian Americans are one of the wealthiest and best educated communities in the United States. With a median household income of $60,093, compared with $41,110 for non-Hispanic white families, and over 67% holding advances degrees, there are few ethnic groups that have comparable income and education levels[1]. Indian-Americans and Pakistani-Americans are among the fastest growing and most successful communities of all ethnic groups in the United States.

According to a 1999 University of California, Berkeley study, at least 15% of all technology companies in Silicon Valley are Indian-run.[2] Among the more prominent South Asian-Americans in recent years are: Vinod Khosla, co-founder of Sun Microsystems and general partner at Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers; Arun Netravali, president of Bell Labs; Rajat Gupta, managing partner at McKinsey; and Indra Nooyi, current president and CFO of Pepsi Co.[3] According to the 2000 U.S. Census, the Indian American population stands at approximately 1,678,765, roughly a 106% increase over the 1990 figures.[4] “Nearly 85% have at least graduated from high school, and 58% have received a bachelor’s degree or higher. This is an impressive level of higher education, especially when compared with the twenty percent of the total population who hold a bachelor’s degree or higher. Of those participating in the labor force, 44% are employed in managerial and professional specialties. The mean earnings of Indian-American households in 1989 were $56,438, as compared with the mean earnings of $30,078[5] of the total U.S population.” [6]

With the emergence of South Asian-Americans in practically every aspect of American society, new networking associations targeted solely towards the South Asian communities are quickly gaining popularity. Many of these nonprofit organizations aim not only to provide a medium for networking and professional development, but also to raise political awareness, promote community service, and provide cultural enrichment opportunities.

With new social / professional groups coming into existence continuously, it can be an arduous task keeping track of the most informative and useful organizations and websites. An excellent solution to this problem is provided by GaramChai.com’s webpage, http://www.garamchai.com/desiassc.htm, which provides a comprehensive listing of the best Indian business and non-profit organizations in the US. Whether you are searching for a professional organization, social networks, or simply web-based discussions on the topics which most interest you, GaramChai.com, roughly translated to a “hot cup of tea,” provides news and information on the South Asian diaspora community. Listed below are links, contact information, and brief descriptions for a few of the leading South Asian Diaspora networking associations.

General South Asian Professional Networking Resources:

1.) The Indus Entrepreneurs (TiE)

Website: www.tie.org

Focus: The Indus Entrepreneurs is a well-established South Asian-American professional association. Its primary goal is to provide career support, networking options, and access to vocational insights for South Asian professionals and entrepreneurs throughout the United States and abroad.

Number of Members: TiE currently consists of 49 chapters in nine countries with a total membership of over 8,000 individuals

CEO/Organizer: The current organizational chairman of TiE is Desh Deshpande. To contact him, e-mail tieadmin@tie.org.

Fees: An annual fee of $100 is collected to fund TiE events, as well as to sponsor professional activities and resources.

Founded: Tie was founded in 1992 in Silicon Valley. Its initial targets were people of Indian origin, but it now serves the broader South Asian and entrepreneurial community.

Description: Although “The Indus Entrepreneurs” signifies the South Asian roots of the founders, the acronym TiE has over time come to stand for something more: “talent, ideas and enterprise.”[7] A significant number of non-Indians attend their programs, and TiE has been a pioneer in organizing events in cooperation with other ethnic networking groups. TiE hosts career-building seminars, conferences, and professional workshops annually. These provide excellent opportunities for business networking, as do their mailing lists and many web resources. TiE members include entrepreneurs, corporate executives, and venture capitalists. Membership is divided into two categories: charter members and general members. Charter membership is available only by way of invitation, and is reserved for seasoned experts who are willing to serve as mentors to the up and coming generations of entrepreneurs. The general membership of TiE is open to anyone who pays the nominal dues, approximately $100 (this may vary with chapters).

2.) Indus Women Leaders

Website: www.induswomenleaders.org

Focus: Indus Women Leaders (IWL) is a national forum that develops South Asian women leaders. IWL provides South Asian women with the resources to achieve their life goals through goal setting tools, advocacy, networking, mentorship, and education[8].

CEO/Organizer: The current operations director of IWL is Hemali Dassani. For more information, e-mail info@induswomenleaders.org.

Fees: Standard membership is free of charge. Event and conference attendance charges do apply (vary from year to year.)

Founded: Indus Women Leaders (IWL) was established in 2001 in order to create a national support network addressing the many challenges female South Asian professionals face each day.

Description: Indus Women Leaders strives to empower South Asian women to become great leaders by unleashing their potential through a strong foundation of support, inspiration, and mentorship[9]. This organization is targeted towards South Asian women of all professions and of all ages; those seeking to be a mentor should have at least five years of professional experience. In addition to an extensive mailing list, IWL hosts annual networking conference, organizes mentor programs, and conducts extensive research and surveys. For more information about the organization or upcoming events, visit the IWL website or e-mail info@induswomenleaders.org.

3.) Asian American Hotel Owner’s Association (AAHOA)

Website: www.aahoa.com

Focus: AAHOA is committed to providing an interactive forum through which Asian American hotel owner’s can exchange ideas, interact, and access professional resources. They are strong proponents of anti-discriminatory measures in the hospitality industry and are continually promoting greater cultural awareness through conferences, newsletters, and hands on educational opportunities.

Number of Members: Membership currently stands at approximately 8000.

Fees: There is an annual membership fee of $100.

Founded: AAHOA was established in 1989.

Description: The single largest member-based Indian business organization in the United States, the Asian American Hotel Owner’s Association aims to eliminate the “distinct challenges that face hoteliers today, and to provide answers through advocacy and education programs which help Asians succeed.[10]” AAHOA is host to several professional events and conferences each year, all of which specifically cater to the needs of those in the hospitality industry. A unique online “toolbox” of resources, monthly publications, and periodic trade shows provide extensive information on topics of interest to South Asian Americans, and also help promote solidarity among hoteliers across the U.S. For more information about the organization or upcoming events, visit the AAHOA website or e-mail info@aahoa.com.

4.) South Asian Bar Association (SABA)

Website: www.sabadc.org

Focus: SABA is a professional networking group for lawyers and students in the legal profession of South Asian heritage, as well as a resource for attorneys across North America. The organization seeks to cultivate ties among South Asian-American lawyers, and to increase awareness and encourage resolution of issues of concern for South Asian-Americans.

Number of Members: Current membership in the South Asian Bar Association stands at several hundred, and continues to expand each day.

CEO/Organizer: The current national President and Chairman of SABA is Geeta Oberoi. She can be contacted at geetaoberoi@hotmail.com.

Fees: Standard membership is free of charge and membership in SABA is open to all South Asian involved in the legal profession, as well as students of South Asian decent currently pursuing a degree in law.

Founded: SABA was founded 2001 as the successor to the Indian-American Bar Association (IAB).

Description: SABA is a voluntary organization dedicated to furthering the professional development and advancement of South Asian-Americans involved in legal professions. It aims to provide a forum for professional networking, and development, as well as to increase awareness of the legal, political, and cultural environment of South Asia. SABA facilitates easy access to information for South Asian lawyers throughout the United States; namely through mailing lists, seminars, receptions with dignitaries, mentoring programs, and recruiting events for law students. For more information, visit the official SABA website at http://www.sabadc.org/index.html, or e-mail sabdc@sabdc.org.

5.) South Asian Journalists Association (SAJA)

Website: www.saja.org

Focus: SAJA is a professional networking group for journalists and a resource for newsrooms across North America. The organization seeks to cultivate ties among South Asian- American journalists, and to improve and expand journalistic coverage of South Asia and its diaspora.

Number of Members: Current membership in the South Asian Journalists Association is approximately 800.

CEO/Organizer: The current national President of SAJA is S. Mitra Kalita, an author and reporter at The Washington Post. She can be contacted at mitra@desiwriter.com.

Fees: Membership dues of $20 are collected annually. Full membership in SAJA is open to all South Asians involved in journalism, and to all non-South Asian journalists primarily covering topics related to South Asia and the South Asian Diaspora.

Founded: SAJA was founded in March 1994

Description: SAJA is a non-profit organization dedicated to furthering the professional development and advancement of South Asian-Americans involved in journalism, and the media. It aims to provide a conduit of information for South Asian journalists throughout the US and Canada; namely through mailing lists, job searches, career counseling, a mentoring program, and scholarship opportunities. SAJA sponsors several writing workshops and seminars each year, as well as discussion panels regarding the Indian subcontinent.

6.) South Asian Networking Association (SANA):

Website: www.sanaonline.com/

Description: SANA is a general purpose networking association aimed towards all members of the South Asian community. It is designed to provide South Asian professionals with a casual opportunity to interact, forge business ties, and develop networking relationships amongst one another. Bi-monthly happy hour events, mailing lists, and their soon to be redesigned interactive web site all provide members with an excellent opportunity to chat, share ideas, and learn more about the many achievements and innovations of the South Asian community. Be sure to check out the SANA website for more information, especially following the launch of their newly revamped website. Until then, direct your specific questions, general inquiries, and membership requests to info@sanaonline.com.

Indian Professional Networking Resources:

7.) American Association of Physicians from India (AAPI)

Website: www.aapiusa.org/aapi.nsf

Focus: The American Association of Physicians from India aims to facilitate the professional advancement and development of Indian American physicians through seminars, web-based discussions, and community outreach programs. AAPI endeavors to improve standards of patient care, to encourage and expand research efforts, and to facilitate professional and community-based activities.

Number of Members: AAPI currently consists of approximately 35,000 practicing physicians and over 10,000 medical students and residents- a total membership exceeding 45,000 individuals.

CEO/Organizer: The current national chairman for AAPI is Sharad Lakhanpal, MD. He can be contacted at slakhanpal@arthritis-dallas.com.

Fees: Annual membership dues of $75. These funds go towards sponsoring AAPI’s charitable foundations, community health columns, and continuing medical education programs.

Founded: AAPI was founded in 1984 by a small group of Indian-American physicians interested in the rise of ethnic and cultural diversity in the medical industry, as well as the radical changes taking place in health-care programs around the United States.

Description: When first formed, the American Association of Physicians from India (AAPI) envisioned “promoting professional solidarity in the pursuit of excellence in patient care, teaching and research, and bringing to American medicine the distinctive contributions from India.” [11] In the nineteen years since its founding, AAPI has worked hard to not only uphold this creed, but also to expand its vision by propagating new medical ideas and knowledge amongst members. Headquartered in Chicago, Illinois, AAPI serves as an umbrella organization for 100 professional associations. It is the largest ethnic medical organization in the US. AAPI sponsors and organizes several community-service initiatives annually, publishes periodic newsletters and mailing lists, and is actively involved in elevating the status and presence of Indian-American medical professionals everywhere. For more information about AAPI, visit the official website at http://www.aapiusa.org/ .

8.) American Society of Engineers of Indian Origin (ASEIO):

Website: www.aseio.org

Focus: ASEIO is an international non-profit professional organization of engineers, both students and seasoned professionals. ASEIO aspires to stimulate and supply a continuous line of knowledge pertinent to engineering and related industries. It fosters open-communication amongst members and a sense of professional solidarity and cooperation.

Number of Members: ASEIO currently includes several hundred members in each of its eleven chapters.

CEO/Organizer: The current national President is Rabindra Rout. You can contact him at rrout16@hotmail.com.

Fees: Standard membership is free of charge. Event and conference attendance charges do apply (vary from year to year.)

Founded: ASEIO was established in 1983.

Description: ASEIO provides numerous resources for engineers, architects, and technical professionals of Indian heritage. They aim to foster cooperation and an exchange of ideas and knowledge between the United States and India, as well as to facilitate practical, career, and technical development amongst its members. Each year, ASEIO sponsors numerous professional events for its members, as well as community service initiatives and public outreach programs. Global networking, career guidance, practical training, and business development, are just a few of the many issues regularly discussed and promoted by ASEIO. Besides providing a forum for networking, ASEIO is also actively engaged in providing training to its members in the areas of leadership skills; new technology, such as 6-sigma and Taguchi methods; bio sciences; and holistic approaches to engineering. ASEIO also seeks to promote/encourage engineering education among second generation Indians living in USA. Numerous scholarships are granted to graduating high school students and undergraduate and graduate students every year; and outstanding students of Indian origin are periodically recognized. In addition, picnics, seminars, and conventions are organized annually for members.

9.) Global Organization of People of Indian Origin:

Website: www.gopio.net

Focus: GOPIO aspires to not only promote the interests and well-being of people of Indian origin, but to also facilitate cooperation, collaboration, and interactions among Indian communities worldwide.

Number of Members: GOPIO currently includes several thousand members worldwide.

CEO/Organizer: The current international President of GOPIO is Dr. Thomas Abraham. For more information, e-mail gopio@optonline.net.

Fees: Membership dues of $50 are collected annually.

Founded: GOPIO was founded at the First Global Convention of People of Indian Origin in New York in 1989.

Description: GOPIO is a non-partisan organization actively involved in the expansion and development of ties amongst the global Indian community. Above all else, GOPIO endeavors to encourage interaction between communities of Indians abroad, thus laying the foundation for international cooperation and deliberation on issues pertinent to all people of Indian origin. Annual conventions, periodic publications, and a multi-purpose discussion board, are just a few of the means employed to unite Indians everywhere and foster interaction on a global scale. In addition, GOPIO provides a medium for members to mobilize intellectual and professional resources for their mutual development and advancement.[12] Networking opportunities, business contacts, and cultural heritage programs are all integral components of GOPIO’s quest to strengthen cultural ties and further the goals and ambitions of Indians everywhere. For more information about the organization or upcoming events, visit the GOPIO website or e-mail gopio@optonline.net.

10.) Indian American Leadership Initiative (IALI)

Website: www.ialipac.org

Focus: The Indian American Leadership Initiative aims to empower high caliber leaders of Indian decent by providing open access to quality political and public policy training. IALI facilitates the professional advancement and development of Indian American political candidates through leadership training, technical skill development, campaign infrastructure, and fundraising/networking support. By providing countless resources to rising Indian-American leaders, IALI endeavors to increase the political prominence of Indian-Americans throughout the U.S, and actively represent their social/political causes and issues.

Number of Members: IALI currently includes several hundred members across the U.S.

Fees: A standard membership / subscription is free of charge.

Founded: IALI was founded in the early 1990’s by a group of Indian-Americans seeking to raise political awareness, and provide a forum for rising Indian-American leaders to project their ideas and political ambitions.

Description: South Asians are among the fastest growing populations in America and as already stated, are also among the wealthiest and best-educated ethnic groups in the country according to the U.S Census. This growth and prosperity, however has not been met by high levels of Indian American electoral participation and political clout. In fact, there are currently only four Indian American state legislators nationwide and no members of Congress[13]. The Indian American Leadership Initiative (IALI), with its goal of “10 by 2010”, aims to change this seemingly troubling problem. By training and funding new political leaders, sponsoring several community- service initiatives annually, and building momentum for candidates, IALI hopes to increase the presence of Indian-American politicians everywhere, and perhaps accomplish their ultimate goal: have 10 South Asian Americans elected to Congress by the year 2010. For more information about IALI, visit the official website at http://www.ialipac.org/about.html, or e-mail info@ialipac.org.

11.) Indian American Policy Institute (IAPI)

Website: www.iapolicy.org

Focus: The Indian American Policy Institute isa nonprofit Washington, D.C. based research and educational foundation providing the intellectual framework for crafting a new vision of the United States in the 21st Century grounded in the values and experiences of the Indian-American community.”[14]

Fees: Standard membership is free of charge and membership in IAPI is open to all South Asians interested in public policy and the implementation of Indian-American ideals in U.S policy.

Founded: IAPI was recently founded in 2002 and is gradually gaining a great deal of momentum, with its membership consisting of up and coming Indian-American leaders from all fields.

Description: “The Indian-American Policy Institute was established by leading Indian Americans who recognized the importance of political involvement, the power of ideas, and the opportunity to affect US public policy.”[15] Through seminars aimed towards educating Indian- Americans about policy initiatives, publications and articles, and a forum to discuss pressing social/cultural issues, IAPI is one of the premiere organizations for Indian-American leaders from all fields. Because the organization is still in its initial stages, it is continually evolving in terms of the interactive forums and events open to members. For more information, visit the IAPI website at: http://www.iapolicy.org/content/main.asp.

12.) Network of Indian Professionals

Website: www.netip.org

Focus: The Network of Indian Professionals is an Indian-American association dedicated to advancing, connecting, as well as recognizing the accomplishments of Indian American professionals throughout the US. They sponsor several professional development, community service, cultural heritage, and scholarship programs annually.

Number of Members: The Network of Indian Professionals currently hosts members from over twenty chapters, and has a total membership of over 5,000 individuals.

Fees: Annual membership fee of $50.

Founded: NetIP was established in 1990.

Description: The network of Indian Professionals (NetIP) is among the largest national associations catering to the needs of Indian American professionals. NetIP aims to enable members to secure key connections with people around the US with similar interests and professional skills. NetIP members include successful Indian professionals working in a broad spectrum of fields: financial services, accounting, commercial and investment banking, law, medicine, and engineering, just to name a few. NetIP uses extensive mailing lists and weekly newsletters to help connect its many members for both professional and social ends. For more information about NetIP and upcoming events, visit your local chapter website, or e-mail info@netip.org.

13.) Non-Resident Indians Network ((NRI): a RYZE subdivision)

Website: nri-network.ryze.com

Focus: NRI aims to serve as a general purpose online business networking site for the Indian diaspora community. Discussion boards cover everything from preparing for an interview, to preserving Indian cultural traditions in western society, to making some of the best chicken tikka masala.

Number of Members: Membership currently stands at approximately 100.

CEO/Organizer: The NRI network is organized and maintained by Ranjit Gill. You can contact him at http://www.ryze.com/view.php?who=ranjitgill

Fees: Standard membership is free of charge.

Founded: The NRI network was founded in 2000 as a subdivision of the RYZE network.

Description: The Non-Resident Indians Network is a subdivision of Ryze, a general-purpose business networking site. Ryze is host to a plethora of diverse business networks and social/cultural platforms, the Non-Resident Indians (NRI) Network being one of these. The NRI network is aimed primarily towards members of the India Diasporas and provides worthwhile information for Indians in the US and abroad. Discussion boards provide extensive information on topics of interest to the India-American community, and provide a unique social and business platform for interested members. Basic membership to Ryze is free, and will allow you to set up a profile, explore other people’s profiles, and participate in a variety of networks.

14.) Silicon ValleyIndian Professionals Association (SIPA)

Website: www.sipa.org

Focus: The Silicon Valley Indian Professionals Association is a network of Indian-Americans specializing in the high technology sector.

Number of Members: Currently, SIPA consists of over 2,300 members from practically all professions.

Fees: Annual membership fee of $20.

Founded: SIPA was founded in 1987 in Santa Clara, California.

Description: SIPA is a nonprofit, voluntary organization. It aims to provide members with both an online forum as well as professional activities and events in order to forge contacts with one another, exchange ideas pertinent to technology and innovation, and further their own professional interests. SIPA tried to foster cooperation between the United States and India in high technology areas, as well as to facilitate professional, career, and business development amongst its members. SIPA members continuously gain new information and perspectives through an array of speaker series and informational seminars. SIPA membership includes highly qualified engineers, corporate managers, financial experts, and other professionals. Many are actively involved in the high-technology industry and hail from almost every major company in the Silicon Valley. For more information, visit the SIPA website, or e-mail contact@sipa.org.

Pakistani Professional Networking Resources:

15.) Network of Pakistani Professionals (DASTAK):

Website: www.dastak.org/

Focus: DASTAK is a nonprofit professional association aimed towards the advancement, professional development, and community/cultural involvement of members of the Pakistani community. DASTAK aspires to “create an environment conducive to professional growth, to provide networking opportunities, and to promote philanthropic activities.”[16] It fosters open-communication amongst members and a sense of professional solidarity and cooperation.

Number of Members: DASTAK currently includes several members throughout its chapters in the tri-state area.

CEO/Organizer: The current President is Ahsan Naqvi. You can contact him at president@dastak.org.

Fees: Membership dues of $50 are collected annually.

Founded: DASTAK was established in 1996.

Description: Since its inception in 1996, DASTAK has been committed to fostering a sense of community among members, as well as furthering their professional/personal aspirations. Taking its name from the Urdu language, DASTAK, roughly translated to “knocking on the doors of opportunity,” has been doing just this for the past seven years. DASTAK aims to eliminate barriers imposed upon the Pakistani community, all the while refining and favorably expanding upon the typical image of Pakistanis. They aim to foster cooperation and an exchange of ideas and knowledge between Pakistani communities throughout the tri-state area, as well as to facilitate practical, and career development amongst its members. Each year, DASTAK sponsors numerous professional events for its members, as well as community service initiatives and public outreach programs. In addition, dinners, seminars, and conventions are organized annually for members.

16.) Pakistani Professionals Networking Association (PPNA):

Website: www.pakistaninetworking.org/

Focus: The Pakistani Professionals Networking Association, aspires to not only provide a medium for the exchange of business/professional ideas among people of Pakistani origin, but also a convenient means with which to form friendships, cultural ties, and general purpose networking groups.

Number of Members: PPNA currently includes several hundred members throughout NY.

Fees: Membership dues of $20 are collected annually.

Description: The Pakistani Professionals Networking Association is a general purpose networking organization actively involved in the development of ties amongst members of the Pakistani community. Above all else, PPNA endeavors to encourage interaction between Pakistani professionals residing in and around New York City, in order to disseminate information about the Pakistani community and form professional/social bonds amongst members. Frequent events at some of NY’s top restaurants and venues, as well as mailing lists and up to date news headlines on the Pakistani community here and abroad, are the primary services provided to members. Networking opportunities, business contacts, and cultural dinners, are all integral components of PPNA’s quest to strengthen cultural ties and further the goals and ambitions of Pakistanis in NY. For more information about the organization or upcoming events, visit the PPNA website or e-mail info@pakistaninetworking.org.

Neha Shanbhag is a senior at the Wharton School of Business, majoring in finance and accounting. She has previously served as general manager at the University of Pennsylvania Student Federal Credit Union, currently works as a teaching assistant in the Wharton Finance Department, and is a member of the Penn South Asia Society and the Wharton Finance Club.

David Teten recently completed his first book, The Virtual Handshake: Opening Doors and Closing Deals Online (www.TheVirtualHandshake.com), published by the American Management Association, and co-written with Scott Allen. The Virtual Handshake is the first book that explains how to find your next client, your next job, or your next business partner online. The Virtual Handshake explains how to take full advantage of blogs, virtual communities, social network sites, and other “social software”. David is CEO of Nitron Advisors, LLC (www.NitronAdvisors.com), which provides institutional investors with direct access to frontline industry experts, and Chairman of Teten Recruiting (www.TetenCo.com), an executive recruiting firm. He was formerly CEO of an investment bank specializing in internet domain names. He is a frequent keynote speaker to finance and technology industry conferences and at such universities as Wharton, Columbia Business School, Yale, and Princeton. David formerly worked for Bear Stearns’ technology/defense investment banking team, and was a strategy consultant with Mars & Co. He holds a Harvard MBA and a Yale BA.

[1] South Asia Monitor Specials. South Asia Monitor.

http://www.southasiamonitor.org/. 16 October 2003

[2] Interview with Analee Saxenian. Rediff.com

http://www.rediff.com/money/2000/nov/07saxen.htm. 29 July 2003.

[3] Foreigner’s Envy, Nation’s Pride. Business Standard’s Billionaire Club.

http://www.business-standard.com/special/billion/year2000/story6.htm. 28 July, 2003.

[4] 2000 United States Census. United States Census Bureau.

http://www.census.gov. 24 July 2003

[5] Historical income Tables. United States Census.

http://www.census.gov/hhes/income/histinc/p23.html. 29 July, 2003.

[6] The Indian American Community in the United States. Embassy of India in Washington D.C.

http://www.outofindia.net/abroad/WashingtonDC/indian_american_community.htm. 24 July 2003

[7] About TiE. The Indus Entrepreneurs.

http://www.tie.org/site/About/About%20TiE. 25 July 2003.

[8] Indus Women Leaders.

http://portal.induswomenleaders.org/DesktopDefault.aspx. 31 March 2004

[9] Indus Women Leaders.

http://portal.induswomenleaders.org/DesktopDefault.aspx. 31 March 2004

[10] About AAHOA. The Asian American Hotel Owner’s Association.

http://www.aahoa.com/aboutAAHOA/about-aahoa.asp. 13 October 2003.

[11] The American Association of Physicians of Indian Origin. AAPI.

http://www.aapiusa.org/aapi.nsf. 25 July 2003.

[12] Objectives of GOPIO. The Global organization of People of Indian Origin.

http://www.gopio.net/formation_gopio.htm. 3 August 2003.

[13] Indo-Americans Train Political Candidates and Raise Clout. IndoLink.Com.http://www.indolink.com/News/NRI/news_073103-145150.php. 13 October 2003.

[14] The Indian American Policy Institute. http://www.iapolicy.org/content/main.asp. 13 October 13, 2003.

[15] The Indian American Policy Institute. http://www.iapolicy.org/content/aboutus.asp. 13 October 13, 2003.

[16] DASTAK, Network of Pakistani Professionals. http://www.dastak.org/. 16 October 2003.